Kamis, 05 Maret 2009

What is Website

A Web site is a collection of related Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that are hosted on one Web server, usually accessible via the Internet.

A Web page is a document, typically written in (X)HTML, that is almost always accessible via HTTP, a protocol that transfers information from the web server to display in the user's web browser.

All publicly accessible websites are seen collectively as constituting the "World Wide Web".

The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a common root URL called the homepage, and usually reside on the same physical server. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them control how the reader perceives the overall structure and how the traffic flows between the different parts of the site.

Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples of subscription sites include many business sites, parts of many news sites, academic journal sites, gaming sites, message boards, Web-based e-mail, services, social networking websites, and sites providing real-time stock market data. Because they require authentication to view the content they are technically an Intranet site.

History

The World Wide Web was "created" in 1990 by CERN engineer, Tim Berners-Lee.[1] On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone.[2]

Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP other protocols such as file transfer protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and chooses files to download. Documents were most often presented as plain text files without formatting or were encoded in word processor formats.

Overview

Organized by function a website may be

* a personal website
* a commercial website
* a government website
* a non-profit organization website

It could be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, and is typically dedicated to some particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, may sometimes be blurred.

Websites are written in, or dynamically converted to, HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and are accessed using a software interface classified as an user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, PDAs and cell phones.

A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server, also called an HTTP server, and these terms can also refer to the software that runs on these systems and that retrieves and delivers the Web pages in response to requests from the website users. Apache is the most commonly used Web server software (according to Netcraft statistics) and Microsoft's Internet Information Server (IIS) is also commonly used.

Types of websites

There are many varieties of Web sites, each specializing in a particular type of content or use, and they may be arbitrarily classified in any number of ways. A few such classifications might include:[original research?]

* Affiliate: enabled portal that renders not only its custom CMS but also syndicated content from other content providers for an agreed fee. There are usually three relationship tiers. Affiliate Agencies (e.g., Commission Junction), Advertisers (e.g., Ebay) and consumer (e.g., Yahoo).
* Archive site: used to preserve valuable electronic content threatened with extinction. Two examples are: Internet Archive, which since 1996 has preserved billions of old (and new) Web pages; and Google Groups, which in early 2005 was archiving over 845,000,000 messages posted to Usenet news/discussion groups.
* Blog (or web log) site: sites generally used to post online diaries which may include discussion forums (e.g., blogger, Xanga).
* Content site: sites whose business is the creation and distribution of original content (e.g., Slate, About.com).
* Corporate website: used to provide background information about a business, organization, or service.
* Commerce site (or eCommerce site): for purchasing goods, such as Amazon.com, CSN Stores, and Overstock.com.
* Community site: a site where persons with similar interests communicate with each other, usually by chat or message boards, such as MySpace or Facebook.
* City Site: A site that shows information about a certain city or town and events that takes place in that town. Usually created by the city council or other "movers and shakers".

* the same as those of geographic entities, such as cities and countries. For example, Richmond.com is the geodomain for Richmond, Virginia.
* Gripe site: a site devoted to the critique of a person, place, corporation, government, or institution.
* Humor site: satirizes, parodies or otherwise exists solely to amuse.
* Information site: contains content that is intended to inform visitors, but not necessarily for commercial purposes, such as: RateMyProfessors.com, Free Internet Lexicon and Encyclopedia. Most government, educational and non-profit institutions have an informational site.
* Java applet site: contains software to run over the Web as a Web application.
* Mirror site: A complete reproduction of a website.
* News site: similar to an information site, but dedicated to dispensing news and commentary.
* Personal homepage: run by an individual or a small group (such as a family) that contains information or any content that the individual wishes to include. These are usually uploaded using a web hosting service such as Geocities.
* Phish site: a website created to fraudulently acquire sensitive information, such as passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy person or business (such as Social Security Administration, PayPal) in an electronic communication (see Phishing).
* Political site: A site on which people may voice political views.
* Porn site - a site that shows sexually explicit content for enjoyment and relaxation, most likely in the form of an internet gallery, dating site, blog, or video sharing.
* Rating site: A site on which people can praise or disparage what is featured.
* Review site: A site on which people can post reviews for products or services.
* School site: a site on which teachers, students, or administrators can post information about current events at or involving their school. U.S. websites generally uses k12 in the URL such as kearney.k12.mo.us.
* Video sharing: A site that enables user to upload videos, such as YouTube and Google Video.
* Search engine site: a site that provides general information and is intended as a gateway or lookup for other sites. A pure example is Google, and the most widely known extended type is Yahoo!.
* Shock site: includes images or other material that is intended to be offensive to most viewers (e.g. rotten.com).
* Warez: a site designed to host and let users download copyrighted materials illegally.
* Web portal: a site that provides a starting point or a gateway to other resources on the Internet or an intranet.
* Wiki site: a site which users collaboratively edit (such as Wikipedia and Wikihow).

Some websites may be included in one or more of these categories. For example, a business website may promote the business's products, but may also host informative documents, such as white papers. There are also numerous sub-categories to the ones listed above. For example, a porn site is a specific type of eCommerce site or business site (that is, it is trying to sell memberships for access to its site). A fan site may be a dedication from the owner to a particular celebrity.

Websites are constrained by architectural limits (e.g., the computing power dedicated to the website). Very large websites, such as Yahoo!, Microsoft, and Google employ many servers and load balancing equipment such as Cisco Content Services Switches to distribute visitor loads over multiple computers at multiple locations.

In February 2009, Netcraft, an Internet monitoring company that has tracked Web growth since 1995, reported that there were 215,675,903 Web sites with domain names and content on them in 2009, compared to just 18,000 Web sites in August 1995.


Source: Website

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